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Fedora Server Installation Guide

After reading this article you you should able to configure Fedore server for post installation and configuration of\r\n

    \r\n

  • NTP Server
  • \r\n

  • SSH Server
  • \r\n

  • Apache Web Server
  • \r\n

  • SSL installation and Configuration
  • \r\n

  • FTP Server
  • \r\n

  • Setup Samba File Server
  • \r\n

  • MySQL Server
  • \r\n

  • PHPmyAdmin to manage mySQL database from remote locations.
  • \r\n

\r\n[1] Download Fedora and Make a DVD for installing Fedora. \r\n\r\nDownload Fedora installation DVD ISO-file from Fedora website http://fedoraproject.org/get-fedora. Burn DVD according to instructions described on Fedora website and install Fedora according to instructions. Documentation for Fedora installation is available at their web sites and links are listed as below: \r\n

\r\n[2] Install Fedora\r\n\r\nIn this article we’re focussing to setup Fedora 11 Server.\r\n\r\n[3] Configure Fedora 11\r\nInitial Configuration After Installing Fedora.\r\n\r\n[a] Add a new user. \r\n\r\nI used user name as ‘fedora’ on following examples, but set any names you like to use.\r\n\r\n[root@dlp ~]#useradd fedora\r\n[root@dlp ~]#passwd fedora\r\nChanging password for user fedora.\r\nNew UNIX password: # input password you want to set\r\nRetype new UNIX password: # verify\r\npasswd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.\r\n[root@dlp ~]#exit # logout\r\n\r\n[b] Try to switch by user that was added in section [1].\r\n\r\nns login: fedora # input user name\r\npassword: # input password\r\n[pixel@dlp ~]$su - # switch to root\r\nPassword: # input password for root\r\n[root@dlp ~]# # done to switching to root\r\n\r\n[c] Make ‘fedora’ user that was added in section [1] be only a user who can switch to root.\r\n\r\n[root@dlp ~]#vi /etc/group\r\n\r\n# line 11: add user\r\nWheel:x:10:root,fedora\r\n[root@dlp ~]#vi /etc/pam.d/su\r\n#%PAM-1.0\r\nauth sufficient pam_rootok.so\r\n# Uncomment the following line to implicitly trust users in the “wheel” group.\r\n#auth sufficient pam_wheel.so trust use_uid\r\n# Uncomment the following line to require a user to be in the “wheel” group.\r\n# remove ‘#’ that was on the head of line\r\nauth required pam_wheel.so use_uid\r\nauth include system-auth\r\naccount sufficient pam_succeed_if.so uid = 0 use_uid quiet\r\naccount include system-auth\r\npassword include system-auth\r\nsession include system-auth\r\nsession optional pam_xauth.so\r\n\r\n[root@dlp ~]#vi /etc/login.defs\r\n\r\n# add this line at the bottom\r\nSU_WHEEL_ONLY yes\r\n\r\n[d] Set config to forward mails for root to a user who is a system administrator you set as.\r\n\r\n[root@dlp ~]#vi /etc/aliases\r\n\r\n# Person who should get root’s mail\r\n# bottom: remove ‘#’ and add user name\r\nroot:fedora\r\n\r\n[root@dlp ~]#newaliases # set new aliases\r\n/etc/aliases: 77 aliases, longest 10 bytes, 776 bytes total\r\n\r\nFw & SELinux :\r\n\r\n[1] It’s unnecessarry to enable FireWall because it’s enable on the Routers, so Change it to disabled.\r\n\r\n[root@dlp ~]#/etc/rc.d/init.d/iptables stop\r\niptables: Flushing firewall rules: [OK]\r\niptables: Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: filter [OK]\r\niptables: Unloading iptables modules: [OK]\r\n\r\n[root@dlp ~]#chkconfig iptables off\r\n[root@dlp ~]#chkconfig ip6tables off\r\n\r\n[2] Change to disabled SELinux (Security-Enhanced Linux).\r\n\r\n[root@dlp ~]#vi /etc/sysconfig/selinux\r\n# This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.\r\n# SELINUX= can take one of these three values:\r\n# enforcing – SELinux security policy is enforced.\r\n# permissive – SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.\r\n# disabled – SELinux is fully disabled.\r\nSELINUX=disabled # change\r\n# SELINUXTYPE= type of policy in use. Possible values are:\r\n# targeted – Only targeted network daemons are protected.\r\n# strict – Full SELinux protection.\r\nSELINUXTYPE=targeted\r\n\r\n[4] Installing NTP Server :\r\n

It’s an example to install and Configure NTP server for system clock.

\r\n[root@dlp ~]#yum -y install ntp\r\nIt will install NTP packages\r\n\r\n[root@dlp ~]#mv /etc/ntp.conf /etc/ntp.conf.bk\r\n[root@dlp ~]#vi /etc/ntp.conf\r\n

# Set servers for synchronizing

\r\n

server ntp1.ssysadmin.com

\r\n

server ntp2.ssysadmin.com

\r\n[root@dlp ~]#/etc/rc.d/init.d/ntpd start\r\nStarting ntpd: [ OK ]\r\n\r\n[root@dlp ~]#chkconfig ntpd on\r\n[root@dlp ~]#ntpq -p\r\n\r\n[5] Installing SSH Server\r\n\r\n[1] Configure SSH server for Windows clietnts computer to be able to login from them. This is the way with Password Authentication.\r\n\r\n[root@dlp ~]#vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config\r\n

\r\n

# line 42: make valid and change ‘no’

\r\nPermitRootLogin no\r\n

# line 63: make valid

\r\nPermitEmptyPasswords no\r\nPasswordAuthentication yes\r\n[root@dlp ~]#/etc/rc.d/init.d/sshd restart\r\n\r\n[2] Get an appreciation which you can login from Windows clients by using PUTTY.\r\n\r\n

\r\n[6] Installing Apache Web Server\r\n\r\nThis is an example to build Web Server. Install Apache for it. In addition to do it, Install PHP and SSL because there are often used with Web Server. And it’s also neccessary to configure router so that TCP and UDP packets to 80 and 443 can pass through.\r\n\r\n[root@www ~]#yum -y install httpd php php-mbstring php-pear mod_ssl\r\n\r\n[root@www ~]#rm -f /etc/httpd/conf.d/welcome.conf\r\n\r\n[root@www ~]#rm -f /var/www/error/noindex.html\r\n[root@www ~]#ln -s /usr/bin/perl /usr/local/bin/perl\r\n\r\nHere is an example to configure Apache. I set it that users can open to the public their Web site and can execute CGI in any directories. ( SSI is disabled because it’s not used so often )\r\n\r\n[root@www ~]#vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf\r\n\r\nServerTokens Prod // line 44: change\r\nKeepAlive On // line 74: change to ON\r\nServerAdmin root@server-linux.info // line 250: Admin’s address\r\nServerName www.server-linux.info:80 // line 264: server’s name\r\nOptions FollowSymLinks ExecCGI // line 319: change (disable Indexes)\r\nAllowOverride All // line 326: change\r\n

#UserDir disable // line 354: make it comment

\r\nUserDir public_html // line 361: make valid\r\n

// line 369 – 380 : remove # and make valid

\r\nAllowOverride All // change\r\nOptions ExecCGI // CGI enabled\r\nOrder allow,deny\r\nAllow from all\r\nOrder deny,allow\r\nDeny from all\r\n

// line 390: add file name that it can access only with directory’s name

\r\nDirectoryIndex index.html index.cgi index.php\r\nServerSignature Off // line 523: change\r\n

#AddDefaultCharset UTF-8 // line 746: make it comment

\r\n

// line 777: make valid and add file-type that apache looks them CGI

\r\nAddHandler cgi-script .cgi.pl\r\n\r\n[root@www ~]#/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd start\r\nStarting httpd:[ OK ]\r\n[root@www ~]#chkconfig httpd on\r\n\r\n[2] Create HTML test page to make sure Apache is working.\r\n\r\n[7] Config SSL\r\n\r\nConfigure for SSL that is installed in above section. We made a Certification File for SSL in this example, but if you use server for business, It’s better to buy and use a Certification File from CA like verisign.com, thawte.com, etc…\r\n\r\n[root@www ~]#cd /etc/pki/tls/certs\r\n[root@www certs]#make server.key\r\numask 77 ; \\r\n

/usr/bin/openssl genrsa -des3 1024 > server.key

\r\nGenerating RSA private key, 1024 bit long modulus\r\n………………………………………………++++++\r\n………….++++++\r\ne is 61251 (0x10001)\r\nEnter pass phrase: // input pass phrase\r\nVerifying – Enter pass phrase: // verify\r\n

// it’s troublesome to input pass phrase always, so remove it from private key

\r\n[root@www certs]#openssl rsa -in server.key -out server.key\r\nEnter pass phrase for server.key: // input pass phrase\r\nwriting RSA key\r\n[root@www certs]#make server.csr\r\numask 77 ; \\r\n

/usr/bin/openssl req -utf8 -new -key server.key -out server.csr

\r\nYou are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated\r\ninto your certificate request.\r\nWhat you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.\r\nThere are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank\r\nFor some fields there will be a default value,\r\nIf you enter ‘.’, the field will be left blank.\r\n—–\r\nCountry Name (2 letter code) [GB]: US\r\nState or Province Name (full name) [Berkshire]:CO\r\nLocality Name (eg, city) [Newbury]:Denver\r\nOrganization Name (eg, company) [My Company Ltd]:sSysAdmin\r\nOrganizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Security\r\nCommon Name (eg, your server’s hostname) []:www.ssysadmin.com\r\nEmail Address []:root@ssysadmin.com\r\nPlease enter the following ‘extra’ attributes\r\nto be sent with your certificate request\r\nA challenge password []: // Enter with empty\r\nAn optional company name []:// Enter with empty\r\n\r\n[root@www certs]#openssl x509 -in server.csr -out server.crt -req -signkey server.key -days 3650 // make CertificateFile\r\nSignature ok\r\nsubject=/C=US/ST=CO/L=Denver/O=sSysAdmin/OU=Security/CN=www.ssysadmin.com/\r\nemailAddress=root@ssysadmin.com Getting Private key\r\n[root@www certs]#chmod 400 server.*\r\n[root@www certs]#vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf\r\n\r\nDocumentRoot “/var/www/html” // line 84: make valid\r\nServerName www.ssysadmin.com:443 // line 85: make valid and change\r\nSSLCertificateFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/server.crt // line 112: change\r\nSSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/server.key // line 119: change\r\n

[root@www certs]#/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart\r\nStopping httpd: [ OK ]\r\nStarting httpd: [ OK ]

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

  Access to the page that is made in section (2) with https. Following window is shown because Certification File is not by CA. Click Ok to proceed.

\r\n[8] Installing FTP Server\r\n[1] Build FTP server to transfer files. Install and configure vsftpd for it.\r\n\r\n[root@www ~]#yum -y install vsftpd\r\n\r\n[root@www ~]#vi /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf\r\n\r\nanonymous_enable= NO // line 12: no anonymous\r\nascii_upload_enable=YES // line 79: make valid\r\nascii_download_enable=YES (permit ascii mode transfer)\r\nchroot_list_enable=YES // line 94: make valid\r\n

\r\n

(enable chroot list)

\r\n

\r\nchroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd/chroot_list // line 96: make valid\r\nls_recurse_enable=YES // line 102: make valid\r\nchroot_local_user=YES // bottom: enable chroot\r\n

local_root=public_html // root directory

\r\n

use_localtime=YES // use local time

\r\n[root@www ~]#vi /etc/vsftpd/chroot_list\r\n

fedora // write users you permit

\r\n[root@www ~]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/vsftpd start\r\nStarting vsftpd for vsftpd: [ OK ]\r\n[root@www ~]#chkconfig vsftpd on\r\n\r\n[9] Samba File Server\r\n\r\nBuild File server to share files between Windows computer and Linux Server computer. Install Samba for it. I created this File server in a GuestOS named ‘lan’ in this example.\r\n\r\n[root@lan ~]#yum -y install samba\r\nCreate a shared directory that anybody can read and write, and authentication is not needed.\r\n\r\n[1] Configure Samba\r\n[root@lan ~]#mkdir /home/share\r\n[root@lan ~]#chmod 777 /home/share\r\n[root@lan ~]#vi /etc/samba/smb.conf\r\n\r\nunix charset = UTF-8 // line 24: add the line\r\nworkgroup =WORKGROUP // line 27: change (Windows’ default)\r\nsecurity =share// line 35: change\r\nhosts allow =192.168.0. 127. // line 41: change IP address you permit\r\n

// add these lines at the bottom

\r\n

[Share] // any name you like\r\npath = /home/share // shared directory\r\nwritable = yes // OK to write\r\nguest ok = yes // guest OK\r\nguest only = yes // guest only\r\ncreate mode = 0777 // fully accessed\r\ndirectory mode = 0777 // fully accessed\r\nshare modes = yes

\r\n[root@lan ~]#/etc/rc.d/init.d/smb start\r\nStarting SMB services:[ OK ]\r\nStarting NMB services:[ OK ]\r\n[root@lan ~]#chkconfig smb on\r\n\r\n[10] Mysql\r\n\r\nInstall MySQL for database server.\r\n\r\n[root@www1 ~]# yum -y install mysql-server\r\n[root@www1 ~]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld start\r\n\r\n[root@www1 ~]#mysql -u root # login to MySQL\r\nWelcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.\r\nYour MySQL connection id is 2 to server version: 5.0.22\r\n\r\nType ‘help;’ or ‘\h’ for help. Type ‘\c’ to clear the buffer.\r\n

# show user info

\r\nmysql>select user, host, password from mysql.user;\r\n

# delete user that has no password

\r\nmysql>delete from mysql.user where user=”;\r\nQuery OK, 2 rows affected (0.00 sec)\r\n

# set root password

\r\nmysql>set password for root@localhost=password(‘password’);\r\nQuery OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)\r\n

# set root password

\r\nmysql>set password for root@’www1.server-linux.info’=password(‘password’);\r\nQuery OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)\r\n

# set root password

\r\nmysql>set password for root@127.0.0.1=password(‘password’);\r\nQuery OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)\r\n

# show user info

\r\nmysql>select user,host,password from mysql.user;\r\n\r\nmysql>exit # logout\r\nBye\r\n[root@www1 ~]#mysql -u root -p # login with root\r\nEnter password: # password\r\nWelcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.\r\nYour MySQL connection id is 4 to server version: 5.0.22\r\n\r\nType ‘help;’ or ‘\h’ for help. Type ‘\c’ to clear the buffer.\r\n\r\nmysql>exit\r\nBye\r\n\r\nInstall phpmyadmin to operate MySQL from Web browser. Webserver is also needed.\r\n\r\n[1] Install and configure phpmyadmin\r\n\r\n[root@www1 ~]#yum -y install phpMyAdmin php-mysql php-mcrypt\r\n[root@www1 ~]#vi /etc/phpMyAdmin/config.inc.php\r\n

# add this line around line 13

\r\n

# set password

\r\n

$cfg[‘blowfish_secret’] = ‘password’;

\r\n

# line 28: change

\r\n$cfg[‘Servers’][$i][‘auth_type’] = ‘cookie’;\r\n\r\n[root@www1 ~]#vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/phpMyAdmin.conf\r\n

# line 8: change

\r\nAlias /mysql /usr/share/phpMyAdmin\r\n# line 13: add IPs you permit\r\nAllow from 127.0.0.1 192.168.0.0/24\r\n\r\n[root@www1 ~]#/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd reload\r\nReloading httpd: [ OK ]\r\n\r\n[2] Access to ‘http://(your hostname)/(alias name you set)/’  i.e. http://localhost/phpMyAdmin through  web browser.\r\n\r\nCredits: yuvalinux @ bs

How to Identify I/O Bottlenecks in MS SQL Server

Problem

\r\nWe experience regular slowdowns on our SQL Server databases. After analyzing the memory and CPU usage we would like to continue the root cause investigation by examining I/O bottlenecks. What is your recommendation to recognize I/O related bottlenecks in SQL Server?\r\n

Solution

\r\nThe I/O subsystem is a key factor when it comes to SQL Server performance since database pages are constantly moved in and out of the buffer pool. Also the transaction logs and tempDB generate significant I/O traffic. Therefore you have to ensure that your I/O subsystem performs as expected, otherwise you will be a victim of increased response times and frequent time-outs. In this tip I will describe some of the ways to identify I/O related bottlenecks using the built-in tools and provide some disk configuration ideas.\r\n\r\n


\r\n\r\n

Performance Monitor

\r\nYou can use Performance Monitor to check the load on your I/O subsystem. The following performance counters can be setup to check disk performance.\r\n\r\nThe PhysicalDisk Object: Avg. Disk Queue Length counter shows you the average number of read and write requests that were queued on the selected physical disk. The higher the number the more disk operations are waiting. It requires attention if this value frequently exceeds a value of 2 during peak usage of SQL Server.  If you have multiple drives you should take this number and divide by the number of drives in the array to see if the number is above 2.  For example, you have 4 drives and a disk queue length of 10, this would be 10/4 = 2.5, so this would be the value you want to use not 10.\r\n\r\nAvg. Disk Sec/Read and Avg. Disk Sec/Write shows the average time of a data reads and writes from/to the disk. It is good up to 10 ms, but it is still acceptable if less than 20 ms. Any higher value needs further investigation.\r\n\r\nPhysical Disk: %Disk Time is the ratio of elapsed time when the disk drive was busy with read or write requests. The rule of thumb for this value is that it should be below 50 percent.\r\n\r\nThe counters Disk Reads/Sec and Disk Writes/Sec show you the rate of read/write operations on the disk. It should be less than 85 percent of the disk capacity since the disk access time increases exponentially beyond this value.\r\n\r\nYou can determine the disk capacity by gradually increasing the load on the system. One way to do this is to use SQLIO.  You should look for the point where the throughput is constant, but the latency increases.\r\n\r\nYou can use the counters for RAID configurations with the following calculations:\r\nRaid 0: I/O per disk = (reads + writes) / number of disks\r\nRaid 1: I/O per disk = [reads + (writes*2)] / 2\r\nRaid 5: I/O per disk = [reads + (writes*4)] / number of disks\r\nRaid 10: I/O per disk = [reads + (writes*2)] / number of disks\r\n\r\nHere is an example of your I/O per disk for RAID 1, if we get these values from the counters:\r\n\r\nDisk Reads/sec = 90\r\nDisk Writes/sec = 75\r\nThe formula for I/O on a RAID-1 array is [reads + (writes*2)] / 2 or [90 + (75*2)] / 2 = 120 I/Os per disk\r\n\r\n


\r\n\r\n

Dynamic Management Views

\r\nThere are some useful Dynamic Management Views (DMVs) to check I/O bottlenecks.\r\n\r\nAn I/O latch wait occurs when a page is accessed for reading or writing but the page is not available in the buffer pool. It causes waits on PAGEIOLATCH_EX or PAGEIOLATCH_SH, depending upon the type of request. These wait types can indicate an I/O bottleneck. You can query the sys.dm_os_wait_stats DMV to find latch wait statistics. You can identify I/O problems if you save query outputs of waiting_task_counts and wait_time_ms values from a normal working state of your SQL Server and compare these values when performance is degraded.\r\n

\r\n

select *\r\nfrom sys.dm_os_wait_stats\r\nwhere wait_type like 'PAGEIOLATCH%'\r\norder by wait_type asc

\r\n

\r\nPending I/O requests can be found by querying the following DMVs and can be used to identify which disk is responsible for the bottleneck.\r\n

\r\n

select database_id,\r\n       file_id,\r\n       io_stall,\r\n       io_pending_ms_ticks,\r\n       scheduler_address\r\nfrom sys.dm_io_virtual_file_stats(NULL, NULL) iovfs,\r\n     sys.dm_io_pending_io_requests as iopior\r\nwhere iovfs.file_handle = iopior.io_handle

\r\n

\r\n \r\n\r\n


\r\n\r\n

Disk Fragmentation

\r\nI would recommend that you check the disk fragmentation and the configuration of your disks used by the SQL Server instance.\r\n\r\nFragmentation of files on NTFS can cause significant reductions in performance. Disks should be defragmented regularly and a defragmentation policy and plan should be put in place.  Research shows that in some cases a SAN can actually perform worse with defragmentation enabled thus SANs need to be treated on a case-by-case basis.\r\n\r\nFragmentation of indexes can also cause high I/O utilization on NTFS, but this does not have the same affect on SANs which perform better on random I/Os.\r\n\r\n


\r\n\r\n

Disk Configuration / Best Practices

\r\nAs a general rule, you should have log files on a physical disk that is separate from the data files for better performance.  The I/O profile for a heavily used database data files (including tempDB) are random. The I/O profile for all database log files are sequential except when a transaction needs to be rolled back.\r\n\r\nThe internal disks should only be used for database log files, because they excel at sequential I/O, but perform poorly on random I/Os.\r\n\r\nThe database data and log files should each be placed on their own dedicated disk packs. To ensure optimal performance, I recommend that the database log file be placed on two internal disks configured as RAID 1.  The database data file should reside on a SAN system which is only accessed by SQL Server and has controlled querying and reporting.  Ad hoc access should be disallowed.\r\n\r\nWrite caching should be enabled where possible and you should make sure the cache is protected from power failures and other possible failures.\r\n\r\nTo limit possible I/O bottlenecks for your OLTP system you should not mix OLAP and OLTP environments.   Also, make sure your code is tuned and create indexes where necessary to avoid unnecessary I/Os.\r\n\r\n \r\n

Next Steps

\r\n

    \r\n

  • Collect and compare performance counters
  • \r\n

  • Analyze DMV information
  • \r\n

  • Run SQL Server Profiler to find high Read and Write queries that can be tuned
  • \r\n

\r\n \r\n\r\n \r\n\r\nReference: Tybor Nagi, sql t!p\r\n\r\n 

Windows Vista Tip – EnabledLinkedConnections

Windows Vista LogoOn Windows Vista when you map a drive under your admin account you will find that your mapped drive is not available after you switch to your full token via a RunAs or Consent dialog. This is by design because there are actually two tokens in play here. What happens is the LSA recognized that you are admin at logon and creates two logons. The first with a “filtered” token or non-admin which is used to render your desktop and the other containing your full token to be available after consent dialogs.\r\n\r\nBecause there are two separate logons there are separate logon ID’s.  When network shares are mapped they are linked to the current logon session for the current process token. Meaning you don’t have access to the network drive from the alternate logon. This can come into play with logon scripts and a number of other areas where you may require access to a network share from both tokens.\r\n\r\nIf you set the following key it will change how SMB shares are mapped. They will be mapped to a token, which means that LSA will check to see if there is a linked token associated with the user session and add the network share to that location as well. Basically all of this means that after setting this drives will be accessible from both tokens no matter which they are mapped under.\r\n\r\nHKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System\r\n\r\nEnableLinkedConnections = 1 (DWord)\r\n\r\nDisclaimer: This is not supported by Microsoft and was never tested. Use at your own risk.\r\n\r\nNote: All images, brand names and code used in articles are property of their respective owners. Do not use them without written approval of the respective owner. Windows/ Windows 7 is trade mark of Microsoft Corporation.\r\n\r\n \r\n\r\n \r\n\r\nCredits to: Josh Phillips, Windows Connected

Samsung Galaxy Gio S5660 Review

Samsung has announced its brand new mid-range Samsung Galaxy Gio S5660 Android Powered Smartphone, just in time for official unveiling of the same at forthcoming Mobile World Congress 2011, that is powered by Qualcomm QCT MSM7227-1 Turbo 800 MHz processor and runs Android 2.2 Froyo.\r\n\r\n

Samsung Galaxy Gio S5660

Samsung Galaxy Gio S5660

\r\n\r\nThe Samsung Galaxy Gio S5660 smartphone is Quad-band GSM: 850, 900, 1800, 1900 dual-band 3G HSDPA: 900, 2100 ready device which is powered by 800 MHz Qualcomm QCT MSM7227-1 Turbo Processor and features 158MB RAM with microSD card supporting 32GB expandable memory allowing practically unlimited entries contact phonebook and SMS memory.\r\n\r\nSamsung Galaxy Gio S5660 smartphone features 3.2-inch, HVGA 320 x 480 pixel TFT capacitive touchscreen supporting 16 million colors and sports two touch-sensitive keys and a large home key in same fashion as on Galaxy S series smartphones.The smartphone also includes Accelerometer sensor for auto screen rotate and runs on Android 2.2 Froyo version with Samsung’s TouchWiz v3.0 user interface over Android just like the one in Samsung Galaxy series smartphones.\r\n\r\nThe new Samsung Galaxy Gio S5660 offers exhaustive data connectivity that includes GPRS, EDGE, 3G HSDPA 7.2 Mbps download speed, Wi-Fi 802.11b/g/N Wireless LAN with DLNA, Bluetooth 2.1+EDR with A2DP wireless connection, GPS with Assisted GPS (A-GPS) and microUSB 2.0 for wired connectivity.\r\n\r\nSamsung Galaxy Gio S5660 includes 3.15 megapixel (2048 x 1536 pixel) rear auto-focus camera ( no LED flash) with added geo-tagging, face and smile recognition capability along with video recording in QVGA resolution. The device does not sports any front-facing camera for video calling.\r\n\r\nSource: MPhone, W3

How to create a new Active Directory site?

Active Directory (AD) has sites, which you can use to group servers into containers that mirror your network’s physical topology. Sites also let you configure replication between domain controllers (DCs). In addition, you can map several TCP/IP subnets to sites so that new servers can automatically join the correct site depending on their IP address and so that clients can easily find the DC closest to them.\r\n\r\nWhen you create the first DC, AD creates the default site Default-First-Site-Name and assigns the DC to this site. Subsequent DCs also add to this site, although you can later move the DCs to other sites. You can rename the default site if you want.\r\n\r\nYou use the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Active Directory Sites and Services Manager snap-in to create and administer sites. To create a new site, perform the following steps.\r\n

    \r\n

  1. Start the MMC Active Directory Sites and Services snap-in. (From the Start menu, select Programs, Administrative Tools, Active Directory Sites and Services Manager.)
  2. \r\n

  3. Right-click the Site branch, and select New, Site from the context menu.
  4. \r\n

  5. Enter a name for the site (e.g., NewYork). The name must be 63 characters or fewer and can’t contain spaces or periods. You must also select a site link (only one site link, DEFAULTIPSITELINK, exists by default). Alternatively, enter
  6. \r\n

    IP

    \r\n

  7. Click OK.
  8. \r\n

\r\nAfter you create the site, you can assign various IP subnets to the site as follows.\r\n

    \r\n

  1. Start the MMC Active Directory Sites and Services snap-in. (From the Start menu, select Programs, Administrative Tools, Active Directory Sites and Services Manager.)
  2. \r\n

  3. Expand the Sites branch.
  4. \r\n

  5. Right-click Subnets, and select New, Subnet, as shown in image below:
  6. \r\n

    Active Directory New Subnet

    Active Directory New Subnet

    \r\n

  7. In the past, you needed to enter the subnet name in the formnetwork/bits masked (e.g., for network 200.200.201.0 with subnet mask 255.255.255.0, you’d enter 200.200.201.0/24). However, this method proved too complicated. Now, you simply enter the address and mask, as the Screen shows.
  8. \r\n

    Active Directory New Subnet Screen2

    Active Directory New Subnet Screen 2

    \r\n

  9. Then, select the site to associate the subnet with.
  10. \r\n

  11. Click OK.
  12. \r\n

\r\nAfter you have a subnet linked to a site, you can assign multiple subnets to the site.\r\n\r\nDetermining the bits masked portion of the subnet name can be confusing. This value is the number of bits set in the subnet mask, which ranges from 22 to 32. The subnet mask consists of four sets of 8 bits. You can use the following Figure to convert the subnet mask to bits.\r\n\r\n

Active Directory New Subnet Mask

Active Directory New Subnet Mask

\r\n\r\nFor example, the subnet mask 255.255.255.0 is 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 in binary, which uses 8 + 8 + 8 bits (i.e., 24) to define the subnet mask. The subnet mask 255.255.252.0 is 11111111.11111111.11111100.00000000 in binary, which is 8 + 8 + 6, or 22.\r\n\r\nAfter you define multiple sites, new DCs that you use DCPROMO to create will automatically join the site that matches their IP address. If no site exists for a DC’s IP subnet, the DC will join the site that authorized the DC’s promotion.\r\n\r\nCredits: John Savill, WinITPro

What is new in Firefox 4 Beta?

FireFox 4\r\n\r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n \r\n\r\nWhat is new?\r\n

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    \r\n

  • Firefox 4 Beta 2 is available in 24 languages.
  • \r\n

  • Tabs are now on top by default on Windows and OSX – Linux will be changing when the theme has been modified to support the change.
  • \r\n

  • You can turn any tab into an “App Tab” by right-clicking on it and selecting “Make into App Tab” from the context menu.
  • \r\n

  • Web developers can animate content using CSS Transitions.
  • \r\n

  • Responsiveness and scrolling improvements from the new retained layers layout system.
  • \r\n

  • JavaScript speed improvements due to engine optimizations.
  • \r\n

  • Changes to how XPCOM components are registered in order to help startup time and process separation.
  • \r\n

  • See the complete changelist from the previous beta.
  • \r\n

\r\nAs well as these features from previous Firefox 4 Betas:\r\n

    \r\n

  • You can search for and switch to already open tabs in the Smart Location Bar
  • \r\n

  • New Addons Manager and extension management API (UI will be changed before final release)
  • \r\n

  • Significant API improvements are available for JS-ctypes, a foreign function interface for extensions.
  • \r\n

  • The stop and reload buttons have been merged into a single button on Windows, Mac and Linux.
  • \r\n

  • The Bookmarks Toolbar has been replaced with a Bookmarks Button by default (you can switch it back if you’d like).
  • \r\n

  • Crash protection for Windows, Linux, and Mac when there is a crash in the Adobe Flash, Apple Quicktime or Microsoft Silverlight plugins.
  • \r\n

  • CSS Transitions are partially supported.
  • \r\n

  • Full WebGL support is included but disabled by default at this time.
  • \r\n

  • Core Animation rendering model for plugins on Mac OS X. Plugins which also support this rendering model can now draw faster and more efficiently.
  • \r\n

  • Native support for the HD HTML5 WebM video format.
  • \r\n

  • An experimental Direct2D rendering backend is available on Windows, turned off by default.
  • \r\n

  • Web developers can use Websockets for a low complexity, low latency, bidirectional communications API.
  • \r\n

  • Web developers can update the URL field without reloading the page using HTML History APIs.
  • \r\n

  • More responsive page rendering using lazy frame construction.
  • \r\n

  • Link history lookup is done asynchronously to provide better responsiveness during pageload.
  • \r\n

  • CSS :visited selectors have been changed to block websites from being able to check a user’s browsing history.
  • \r\n

  • New HTML5 parser.
  • \r\n

  • Support for more HTML5 form controls.
  • \r\n

\r\nDevelopers can find out about all the changes and new features at the Mozilla Developer Center.\r\n\r\n

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System Requirements

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\r\n\r\nBefore installing, make sure your computer meets the system requirements:\r\n

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\r\n

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Windows\r\n\r\nOperating System\r\n

    \r\n

  • Windows 2000
  • \r\n

  • Windows XP
  • \r\n

  • Windows Server 2003
  • \r\n

  • Windows Vista
  • \r\n

  • Windows 7
  • \r\n

\r\nMinimum Hardware\r\n

    \r\n

  • Pentium 233 MHz (Recommended: Pentium 500  MHz or greater)
  • \r\n

  • 64 MB RAM (Recommended: 128 MB RAM or greater)
  • \r\n

  • 52 MB hard drive space
  • \r\n

\r\n \r\n\r\nMac\r\n\r\nOperating System\r\n

    \r\n

  • Mac OS X 10.4 and later
  • \r\n

\r\nMinimum Hardware\r\n

    \r\n

  • Macintosh computer with an Intel x86 or PowerPC G3, G4, or G5 processor
  • \r\n

  • 128 MB RAM (Recommended: 256 MB RAM or greater)
  • \r\n

  • 200 MB hard drive space
  • \r\n

\r\n \r\n\r\nLinux\r\n\r\nOperating System\r\n\r\nPlease note that Linux distributors may provide packages for your distribution which have different requirements. Firefox will not run at all without the following libraries or packages:\r\n

    \r\n

  • GTK+ 2.10 or higher
  • \r\n

  • GLib 2.12 or higher
  • \r\n

  • Pango 1.14 or higher
  • \r\n

  • X.Org 1.0 or higher
  • \r\n

\r\nFor optimal functionality, following libraries or packages recommended:\r\n

    \r\n

  • NetworkManager 0.7 or higher
  • \r\n

  • DBus 1.0 or higher
  • \r\n

  • HAL 0.5.8 or higher
  • \r\n

  • GNOME 2.16 or higher
  • \r\n

\r\nMinimum Hardware\r\n

    \r\n

  • Pentium 233 MHz (Recommended: Pentium 500 MHz or greater)
  • \r\n

  • 64 MB RAM (Recommended: 128 MB RAM or greater)
  • \r\n

  • 52 MB hard drive space
  • \r\n

\r\n\r\n

\r\nDownloading\r\n\r\n

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\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n\r\nMozilla will provide Firefox 4 Beta for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X in a variety of languages, though this first version is only available in English. Eventually you will be able to get the latest version of the Firefox 4 Beta in many languages. For builds for other systems and languages not provided by Mozilla, see the Contributed Builds section at the end of this document.\r\n\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

Installing

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n\r\nInstalling Firefox 4 Beta will not overwrite your existing installation of Firefox. You won’t lose any of your bookmarks or browsing history, but some of your extensions and other add-ons might not work until updates for them are made available.\r\n\r\n

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\r\n

Uninstalling

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\r\n

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\r\n\r\nYou can remove Firefox 4 Beta with the Add/Removes Programs utility on Windows, by moving the Firefox application to the Trash on OS X, or by deleting the containing folder on Linux.\r\n\r\nBy default, removing Firefox 4 Beta won’t remove your bookmarks, web browsing history, extensions or other add-ons. This data is stored in your profile folder, which can be found by going to the Help menu and selecting Troubleshooting Information…. The button next to the Profile Directory line in Application Basics will open your profile directory in your system’s file explorer.\r\n\r\nPlease note that if you keep your profile, any version of Firefox that you install after removing Firefox 4 Beta will continue to use the bookmarks, web browsing history, add-ons, and other data from this profile folder.\r\n\r\n

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\r\n

Add-ons and Themes

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\r\n

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\r\n\r\nAdd-ons installed with previous versions of Firefox may not yet have been updated by their authors to work with this Firefox 4 Beta. If you wish to help test Add-ons, please install the Add-on Compatibility Reporter – your favorite Add-on author will appreciate it!\r\n\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

Known Issues

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n\r\nThis list covers some of the known problems with Firefox 4 Beta which will be resolved in future versions:\r\n\r\n

All Systems
\r\n

    \r\n

  • For some users, scrolling in the main GMail window will be slower than usual (see bug 579260)
  • \r\n

  • Some plugin content, like the media controls on older YouTube videos, will be initially drawn incorrectly. Scrolling or hovering over the affected areas restores them (see bug 579262)
  • \r\n

  • The popular video sites Hulu.com and Netflix.com are not displaying content to beta users due to bad “user-agent” detection in their code (see bug 580843 and bug 522957)
  • \r\n

  • The Bookmark Toolbar is turned off by default even on existing profiles (see bug 574514)
  • \r\n

  • If you try to start Firefox using a locked profile, it will crash (see bug 573369)
  • \r\n

\r\n

Microsoft Windows
\r\n

    \r\n

  • This beta will not start on Windows 2000 (see bug 577486)
  • \r\n

  • A rendering problem with Google Finance can lead to instability (see bug 579558)
  • \r\n

  • Some graphics drivers may not work properly with full screen Ogg Theora HTML video acceleration (see bug 564391)
  • \r\n

  • When using a Persona, the maximize, minimize and close window buttons will not appear, though they will still work (see bug 574833)
  • \r\n

  • When using the Windows “Classic” theme the toolbars and tab strip may appear gray for several seconds as Firefox starts up (see bug 574638)
  • \r\n

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\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

Troubleshooting

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

\r\n

    \r\n

  • Poorly designed or incompatible extensions can cause problems with your browser, including make it crash, slow down page display, etc. If you encounter strange problems relating to parts of the browser no longer working, the browser not starting, windows with strange or distorted appearance, degraded performance, etc, you may be suffering from Extension or Theme trouble. Restart the browser in Safe Mode. On Windows, start using the “Safe Mode” shortcut created in your Start menu or by running firefox.exe -safe-mode. On Linux, start with ./firefox -safe-mode and on Mac OS X, run: cd /Applications/Firefox.app/Contents/MacOS/\r\n./firefox-bin -safe-mode \r\n\r\nWhen started in Safe Mode all extensions are disabled and the Default theme is used. Disable the Extension/Theme that is causing trouble and then start normally.
  • \r\n

  • If you uninstall an extension that is installed with your user profile (i.e. you installed it from a Web page) and then wish to install it for all user profiles using the -install-global-extension command line flag, you must restart the browser once to cleanse the profile extensions datasource of traces of that extension before installing with the switch. If you do not do this you may end up with a jammed entry in the Extensions list and will be unable to install the extension globally.
  • \r\n

  • If you encounter strange problems relating to bookmarks, downloads, window placement, toolbars, history, or other settings, it is recommended that you try creating a new profile and attempting to reproduce the problem before filing bugs. Create a new profile by running Firefox with the -P command line argument, choose the “Manage Profiles” button and then choose “Create Profile…”. Migrate your settings files (Bookmarks, Saved Passwords, etc) over one by one, checking each time to see if the problems resurface. If you do find a particular profile data file is causing a problem, file a bug and attach the file.
  • \r\n

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The iPad 2: What is known, what is unknown Read more about next-generation iPad by ssysadmin.com

We’re just 48 hours away from getting our first look at the long-awaited, next-generation iPad—or that’s what we’re expecting, at least.\r\n\r\n

iPad 2

iPad 2

\r\n\r\nIndeed, with all the leaks, rumors, and wild guesses we’ve been hearing in the past months about the next iPad, it’s easy to forget that Apple hasn’t even officially announced the thing yet, much less doled out any details or pictures.\r\n\r\nSince we still have a couple days to kill before Apple ends the suspense, now might a good time to summarize what we know, what we think we know, and—most importantly—what we definitely don’t know about the iPad 2.\r\n\r\nWhat we know\r\n\r\nThe original iPad is still the only iPad, for now: Like I just said, Apple has yet to announce, acknowledge, make veiled references to, or even hint at a new iPad. Well … strike that: during Apple’s most recent quarterly earnings call, Apple COO Tim Cook told analysts (who’d been asking about competition from impending Android-based tablets) that “we’re not sitting still” in terms of the tablet market, a remark that may qualify as a vague hint.\r\n\r\nApple is holding an iPad-related event Wednesday: The invitations went out last week, with an image showing a Mac OS calendar page peeled back to reveal an iPad peeking out from behind. The caption: “Come see what 2011 will be the year of.” So yes—the writing’s on the wall, but the invite stops short of saying “come meet the iPad 2” or anything like that.\r\n\r\nLast but not least, we know that … uh … : If we’re only talking about things we definitely know about the next iPad … well, strictly speaking, we don’t know much more than what I just outlined above. Oh, wait: Wednesday’s Apple event will be held in San Francisco, at 10 in the morning local time. And iPad-related topics are on the agenda. There you go.\r\n\r\nWhat we don’t know\r\n\r\nWhat it’ll be called: Everyone’s been calling the next iPad the “iPad 2,” and there’s even a new (and likely fan-generated) rendering of the next-generation tablet floating around with the “iPad 2” name stamped on the back. But as far as I know, no one’s come out and reported that the iPad 2 will, in fact, be called the iPad 2. Apple’s been known to throw curve balls when it comes to naming its next-gen products (like, for example, the iPhone 3G and 3GS), so I wouldn’t put all my eggs in the “iPad 2” basket.\r\n\r\nHow much internal storage it’ll have: Will we get an iPad 2 model with 128GB of built-in flash storage, or will the largest next-gen iPad still top out at 64GB? Hard to say. There have been scattered reports of iPad 2 mockups with “128GB” etched onto the back, but that may be more a case of wishful thinking than a concrete clue. I predict the priciest iPad will still offer “just” 64GB of flash storage (which still costs a premium compared to conventional disc-based hard drives), but that’s only a guess on my part.\r\n\r\nHow much it will cost: Apple is in the habit of marking its next-generation products with the same price as the previous generation, and there’s no reason to believe that Cupertino will change course with the iPad 2. Again, though, we’ve yet to hear any reliable rumors about pricing. (For the record, the current iPad costs anywhere from $499 for the 16GB Wi-Fi-only version to $829 for the 64GB 3G iPad.)\r\n\r\nWhen it will ship: Conventional wisdom initially had it that the new iPad would probably hit stores about a month or so after being announced, but now there’s talk the iPad 2 might be available immediately. Maybe so, but personally, I’m hedging my bets until Apple serves up the official line.\r\n\r\nWhat we think we know\r\n\r\nSlimmer profile, less heft: Just about everyone seems to agree that the redesigned iPad will be “smaller” and “lighter” than its predecessor, complete with a flatter back and tapered edges. Indeed, chatter about a slimmed-down iPad 2 shell has been so consistent (not to mention a logical progression for the iPad line) that I’d be shocked if it didn’t come to pass Wednesday.\r\n\r\nA camera, or two: Another consistent iPad 2 rumor has it that Apple will fix one of the biggest criticisms of the original iPad—namely, the lack of a camera. A recent Wall Street Journal story claimed that the new iPad will have “at least” one camera in front for FaceTime video chat, and there have been countless sightings of purported iPad 2 cases with strategically placed holes in back for a second, rear-facing lens. While there still seems to be some lingering doubt about a second camera, a front-facing lens is pretty much a no-brainer, particularly since each and every iPad competitor out there has one.\r\n\r\nSame-resolution display: The hot rumor back in December had it that the iPad 2 would arrive with a sharper, 2,048-by-1,536 pixel display, good for a “retina”-style screen similar to the one on the iPhone 4. But the latest word and some leaked spy shots have poured cold water on the buzz, and it’s now looking almost certain that the revamped iPad display will come with a 1,024-by-768-resolution display, same as the original. Oh well. (Don’t worry; recent chatter has it that the iPad 3—yes, 3—might get the retina-display treatment.)\r\n\r\nFaster, beefier processor: “Dual-core” is the gotta-have spec when it comes to this year’s hottest smartphones and gadgets, and the iPad 2 is no exception. Most believe the revamped tablet will get an updated, dual-core version of Apple’s A4 “system-on-a-chip,” complete with 512MB of RAM (double the 256MB RAM in the original iPad) and some seriously souped-up graphics capabilities.\r\n\r\nBetter speaker: The new iPad is reportedly in line for an improved, “wide-ranged” speaker, with the more prominent speaker grille said to be sitting right where the current three-hole speaker on the first iPad lives. Or so they say.\r\n\r\nNo SD card: An SD (or microSD) card slot on the next iPad would allow for easy memory expansion and speedy photo uploading. It’s a nice idea, but early buzz on Apple adding an SD card slot to the iPad has given way to near-universal agreement that it won’t actually happen. Bummer.\r\n\r\nNo 4G support: Not on Verizon Wireless, at least, according to the Wall Street Journal, which adds that the 3G version of the iPad 2 will be available through AT&T and Verizon but not Sprint or T-Mobile.\r\n\r\nSource: yahoonews, W3

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