Tag Archives: Development

SQL Injection: How To Prevent Security Flaws In PHP / MySQL

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What is SQL Injection\r\nMost new web developers have heard of SQL injection attacks, but not very many know that it is fairly easy to prevent an attacker from gaining access to your data by filtering out the vulnerabilities using MySQL extensions found in PHP. An SQL injection attack occurs when a hacker or cracker (a malicious hacker) attempts to dump the data in a database table in a database-driven web site. In an unprotected and vulnerable site, this is pretty easy to do.\r\n\r\nSQL injection is a common vulnerability that is the result of lax input validation. Unlike cross-site scripting vulnerabilities that are ultimately directed at your site’s visitors, SQL injection is an attack on the site itself, in particular its database.\r\nThe goal of SQL injection is to insert arbitrary data, most often a database query, into a string that’s eventually executed by the database. The insidious query may attempt any number of actions, from retrieving alternate data, to modifying or removing information from the database.\r\n\r\nHow does SQL injection attack works\r\nIn order for an SQL injection attack to work, the site must use an unprotected SQL query that utilizes data submitted by a user to lookup something in a database table. The data could be from a search box, a login form or any type of query used to look up data using data input by user. It also means that querystring data used to query a database can create vulnerabilities.\r\nFor example:\r\n\r\nAn very simple unprotected query might look like this:\r\n\r\n

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SELECT * FROM items WHERE itemID = '$itemID'

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Normally, you would expect a user to submit a username and password, which would be used to query the database table to see if the username and password exists. But what if someone used the following instead of a password?

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‘ OR ‘1′ = ‘1

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That would make the query used to look for the password look like this:

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SELECT * FROM items WHERE itemID = '' OR '1' = '1'

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This would always return a True response and could literally display the entire table as the result for the query. This is a pretty scary thought if you are trying to keep your data secure. The problem with SQL injection is that a hacker does not have to know anything about your database or table structure.\r\n\r\nWhat if an error or some other issue caused your table structure to be exposed? Hackers are very good at forcing errors to occur that expose information that allows them to penetrate a site deeper. What if the following was entered in the password field?\r\n\r\n

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‘; drop table users;

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How to prevent your database from SQL Injection attacks\r\nThere is a method for filtering the data that is used on the right side of the WHERE clause to look up a row in a database. The trick is to escape any characters that may be in the user input portion of the query that could lead to a successful attack.\r\n\r\nUse the following function to add backslashes to suspect characters and filter any data that is input by a user.\r\n\r\n

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function cleanQuery($string)\r\n{\r\n if(get_magic_quotes_gpc()) // prevents duplicate backslashes\r\n {\r\n  $string = stripslashes($string);\r\n }\r\n  if (phpversion() >= '4.3.0')\r\n  {\r\n   $string = mysql_real_escape_string($string);\r\n  }\r\nelse\r\n{\r\n $string = mysql_escape_string($string);\r\n}\r\nreturn $string;\r\n}\r\n\r\n// if you are using form data, use the function like this:\r\nif (isset($_POST['itemID'])) $itemID = cleanQuery($_POST['itemID']);\r\n\r\n// you can also filter the data as part of your query:\r\nSELECT * FROM items WHERE itemID = '". cleanQuery($itemID)."' "

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The first part looks to see if magic quotes is turned on. if so, it may have already added backslash escapes though a POST or GET method used to pass the data. If backslashes were added, they need to be removed prior to running it through the rest of the function.\r\n\r\nThe next part checks the PHP version. The built-in function that we want to use is called mysql_real_escape_string. This MySQL function only exists in PHP version 4.3.0 or newer. If you are using an older version of PHP, another MySQL function is used called mysql_escape_string.\r\n\r\nmysql_escape_string is not as effective as the newer mysql_real_escape_string. The newer version escapes the string according to the current character set. The character set is ignored by mysql_escape_string, which can leave some vulnerabilities ope for sophisticated hackers. If you find that you are using an older version of PHP and you are trying to protect sensitive data, you really should upgrade to a current version of either PHP 4 or PHP 5.\r\n\r\nSo what does mysql_real_escape_string do?\r\n\r\nThis PHP library function prepends backslashes to the following characters: \n, \r, \, \x00, \x1a, ‘ and “. The important part is that the single and double quotes are escaped, because these are the characters most likely to open up vulnerabilities.\r\n\r\nFor those who do not know what an escape is, it is a character that is pre-pended to another character. When a character is escaped, it is ignored by the database. In other words, it makes that character ineffective in a query. In the case of PHP, an escaped character is treated differently by the PHP parser. The standard escape character used by PHP and MySQL is the backslash.\r\n\r\nIn the case of the SQL query example used above, after running it through the routine, it now looks like this, which breaks the query :\r\n\r\n

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SELECT * FROM items WHERE itemID = '\' OR \'1\' = \'1'

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\r\nThis method should stop the bulk of the SQL injection attacks, but crackers and hackers are very creative and are always finding new methods to break into systems. There are additional steps that can be taken to filter out certain words, such as drop, grant, union, etc., but using this method will strip these words from searches performed by you users. However, if you want to add another level of security and do not have an issue with certain words being deleted from queries, you can add the following just before if (phpversion() >= ‘4.3.0′).\r\n

$badWords = array("/delete/i", "/update/i","/union/i","/insert/i","/drop/i","/http/i","/--/i");\r\n$string = preg_replace($badWords, "", $string);

\r\nThis additional step should prevent a malicious attacker from damaging a database if they found a way to slip through. Just remember that is you take this additional step and you have a site where someone might search for a “plumbing union” or a “drop cloth”, those queries would not work as intended. If you are wondering what the trailing ‘i’ is following each word in the array, it is required to make the preg_replace replacements case insensitive. This wasn’t needed with eregi_replace, but that function has been deprecated in PHP 5.3.\r\n\r\nAnother important step that needs to be taken with any database is controlling user privileges. When setting up a MySQL user, you should never assign any more privileges than they actually need to accomplish the tasks that you allow on your site. Privileges are easily assigned and managed thought phpMyAdmin, which is found in the the control panel (cPanel, Plesk, etc.) for most hosting companies.\r\n\r\nUseful Links\r\n

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SQL_injection\r\nhttp://www.learnphponline.com/securi…tion-mysql-php\r\nhttp://dev.mysql.com/tech-resources/…curity-ch3.pdf\r\nhttp://www.tizag.com/mysqlTutorial/m…-injection.php

Solving ReportViewer Rendering Issue on IIS7

Solving ReportViewer Rendering Issue on IIS7\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nApplies to:\r\n

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  • Internet Information Services 7.0 (IIS7)
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  • Microsoft Report Viewer Redistributable 2005
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\r\nSymptoms:\r\n

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  • Unable to render ReportViewer on ASP.NET Web pages while running on IIS7.
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  • You have no problem viewing your reports when running on debug mode with your Visual Studio 2005.
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  • You are able to view your reports on Report Manager but not able to view them on IIS7.
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  • You encounter JavaScript error when loading your report page with ReportViewer. Image buttons such as calendar appear as red ‘X’.
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\r\nCause:\r\n

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  • When the ReportViewer control is added to Web Form (.aspx), the\r\nReserved.ReportViewerWebControl.axd httpHandler is added to System.Web section of the Web.Config file. In IIS7, it should be added under System.Webserver section.
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  • IIS7 Handler Mappings does not contain Reserved.ReportViewerWebControl.axd httpHandler, and therefore unable to render the ReportViewer elements needed by the JavaSript.
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  • Open Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager and select your Web application.
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  • Under IIS area, double-click on Handler Mappings icon.
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  • At the Action pane on your right, click on Add Managed Handler.
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  • At the Add Managed Handler dialog, enter the following:\r\nRequest path: Reserved.ReportViewerWebControl.axd\r\nType: Microsoft.Reporting.WebForms.HttpHandler\r\nName: Reserved-ReportViewerWebControl-axd
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  • Click OK.
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\r\nReserved-ReportViewerWebControl-axd handler is now added to your Handler Mappings list. Notice that the following line has also been added to your Web.config file under the system.webserver’s handler section:\r\n

<add name="Reserved-ReportViewerWebControl-axd" path="Reserved.ReportViewerWebControl.axd" verb="*" type="Microsoft.Reporting.WebForms.HttpHandler" resourceType="Unspecified" />

\r\nRun your report again.

How To Enable AJAX .NET Framework 3.5 on IIS7 Server

IIS versions before 7.0 did not require <handlers> for AJAX to work.\r\nIf you are installing AJAX on new IIS7 servers, you will have to make sure you have the following code in your web.config:\r\n

<!--  \r\n The system.webServer section is required for running ASP.NET AJAX under Internet \r\n Information Services 7.0.  It is not necessary for previous version of IIS. \r\n --> \r\n <system.webServer> \r\n <validation validateIntegratedModeConfiguration="false"/> \r\n <modules> \r\n <remove name="ScriptModule"/> \r\n <add name="ScriptModule" preCondition="managedHandler" type="System.Web.Handlers.ScriptModule, System.Web.Extensions, Version=3.5.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31BF3856AD364E35"/> \r\n </modules> \r\n <handlers> \r\n <remove name="WebServiceHandlerFactory-Integrated"/> \r\n <remove name="ScriptHandlerFactory"/> \r\n <remove name="ScriptHandlerFactoryAppServices"/> \r\n <remove name="ScriptResource"/> \r\n <add name="ScriptHandlerFactory" verb="*" path="*.asmx" preCondition="integratedMode" type="System.Web.Script.Services.ScriptHandlerFactory, System.Web.Extensions, Version=3.5.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31BF3856AD364E35"/> \r\n <add name="ScriptHandlerFactoryAppServices" verb="*" path="*_AppService.axd" preCondition="integratedMode" type="System.Web.Script.Services.ScriptHandlerFactory, System.Web.Extensions, Version=3.5.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31BF3856AD364E35"/> \r\n <add name="ScriptResource" verb="GET,HEAD" path="ScriptResource.axd" preCondition="integratedMode" type="System.Web.Handlers.ScriptResourceHandler, System.Web.Extensions, Version=3.5.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31BF3856AD364E35"/> \r\n </handlers> \r\n </system.webServer>

How To Fix ‘Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0’ error

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Problem:

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Server Error in ‘/’ Application.

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The ‘Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0’ provider is not registered on the local machine.

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Description: An unhandled exception occurred during the execution of the current web request.

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Please review the stack trace for more information about the error and where it originated in the code.

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Exception Details: System.InvalidOperationException: The ‘Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0’

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provider is not registered on the local machine.

\r\nSolution:\r\n\r\nYou will get this error on Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows 7 64 bit. To fix it, switch your Application Pool from Native 64 bit to 32 Bit more under Advanced Settings.\r\n\r\nSuggestion:\r\n\r\nIt is also suggested that you upgrade your application to new ACE OLEDB provider, you can download from here.

Backup IIS7 ApplicationHost.config and Settings

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Internet Information Services 7 (IIS7) doesn’t use metabase-like file from IIS6. Instead the settings and configuration are stored in schema files and applicationHost.config files.\r\n\r\nSince the configuration files are different, the old IIS6 tools will not be able to backup IIS7 settings.\r\n\r\nThis is the new script that you can use to backup your IIS7 web servers.\r\n\r\n1. Using notepad or any text editor create a file backupiis7.cmd\r\n\r\n2. Insert the following code and save the file:\r\n

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Code:

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@echo off\r\ncls\r\n\r\npushd "%WinDir%\System32\inetsrv"\r\n\r\necho.| date | find /i "current">datetime1.tmp\r\necho.| time | find /i "current">datetime2.tmp\r\n\r\nfor /f "tokens=1,2,3,4,5,6" %%i in (datetime1.tmp) do (\r\n  echo %%n>datetime1.tmp\r\n)\r\nfor /f "tokens=1,2,3,4,5,6" %%i in (datetime2.tmp) do (\r\n  echo %%m>datetime2.tmp\r\n)\r\nfor /f "delims=/ tokens=1,2,3" %%i in (datetime1.tmp) do (\r\n  set TMPDATETIME=%%k%%i%%j\r\n)\r\nfor /f "delims=:. tokens=1,2,3,4" %%i in (datetime2.tmp) do (\r\n  set TMPDATETIME=D%TMPDATETIME%T%%i%%j%%k%%l\r\n)\r\n\r\nappcmd add backups %TMPDATETIME%\r\n\r\ndel datetime1.tmp\r\ndel datetime2.tmp\r\n\r\nset TMPDATETIME=\r\n\r\npopd\r\necho.

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\r\n3. The IIS7 configuration will be backed up at the following path:\r\n

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C:\Windows\System32\inetsrv\backup

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\r\nNOTE: you can also use Task Scheduler to automate backups.

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ASP.NET Security Vulnerability Workaround

Update on ASP.NET Vulnerability

\r\n Earlier this week We posted about an ASP.NET Vulnerability.\r\nMicrosoft is actively working on releasing a security update that fix the issues ready for broad distribution across all Windows platforms via Windows Update. We’ll post details about this once it is available.\r\n \r\n\r\nRevised Workaround and Additional URLScan Step\r\nIn our first community post we covered a workaround you can apply immediately on your sites and applications to prevent attackers from exploiting it. Today, we are revising it to include an additional defensive measure.\r\nThis additional step can be done at a server-wide level, and should take less than 5 minutes to implement. Importantly, this step does not replace the other steps in the original workaround, rather it should be done in addition to the steps already in it. Below are instructions on how to enable it.\r\n \r\n\r\nInstall and Enable IIS URLScan with a Custom Rule\r\n\r\nIf you do not already have the IIS URLScan module installed on your IIS web server, please download and install it:\r\n\r\n \r\n

\r\nIt takes less than a minute to install on your server.\r\n \r\n\r\nAdd an Addition URL Scan Rule\r\nOnce URLScan is installed, please open and modify the UrlScan.ini file in this location:\r\n

%windir%\system32\inetsrv\urlscan\UrlScan.ini

\r\nNear the bottom of the UrlScan.ini file you’ll find a [DenyQueryStringSequences] section. Add an additional “aspxerrorpath=” entry immediately below it and then save the file:\r\n\r\n \r\n

[DenyQueryStringSequences]\r\naspxerrorpath=

\r\nThe above entry disallows URLs that have an “aspxerrorpath=” querystring attribute from making their way to ASP.NET applications, and will instead cause the web-server to return an HTTP error. Adding this rule prevents attackers from distinguishing between the different types of errors occurring on a server – which helps block attacks using this vulnerability.\r\nAfter saving this change:\r\n\r\n

run “iisreset”\r\nfrom a command prompt (elevated as admin\r\n

\r\nFor the above changes to take effect. To verify the change has been made, try accessing a URL on your site/application that has a querystring with an aspxerrorpath and verify that an HTTP error is sent back from IIS.\r\n URL Scan Summary\r\nIf you’ve already implemented the workaround we’ve previously published, please add the above step to help block attackers from exploiting the vulnerability.\r\nOur team is working around the clock to release an update via Windows Update that fixes the underlying product vulnerability. Until that update is available, you can use the above workaround to help prevent attackers from using the vulnerability against your applications.\r\nOnce we release the security update, you will no longer need to implement any workaround steps.\r\n\r\nThe alternative option: Using IIS request filtering:\r\nThese instructions are an alternative for the UrlScan instructions above for systems running IIS on Windows Vista Service Pack 2, Windows Server 2008 Service Pack 2, Windows 7, or Windows Server 2008 R2.\r\n1. Install the Request Filtering feature in IIS through either Add/Remove Programs or Role Manger by selecting the feature under Internet Information Services, World Wide Web Services, Security.\r\n2. Launch Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.\r\n3. Select the server node in the left pane.\r\n4. Double-click Request Filtering.\r\n5. Select the Query Strings tab and click Deny Query String … in the Actions pane.\r\n6. Enter aspxerrorpath= in the dialog box and select OK.\r\n\r\nAlternatively, you can also use the following appcmd command to set this request querystring:\r\n

appcmd set config /section:requestfiltering /+denyQueryStringSequences.[sequence=’aspxerrorpath=’]

\r\nFor more information on using appcmd to configure IIS, see Getting Started with AppCmd.exe.\r\n\r\nConfigure ASP.Net applications to use uniform custom errors\r\nIn the root folder of each ASP.NET web application, determine if you already have a web.config file in this folder. You must have rights to create a file in the target directory to implement this workaround.\r\nIf the ASP.NET application does not have a web.config file:\r\n\r\nOn .NET Framework 3.5 and earlier\r\n1. Create a text file named web.config in the root folder of the ASP.NET application, and insert the following contents:\r\n

<configuration>\r\n<location allowOverride=”false”>\r\n<system.web>\r\n<customErrors mode=”On” defaultRedirect=”~/error.html” />\r\n</system.web>\r\n</location>\r\n</configuration>

\r\n2. Create a text file named error.html containing a generic error message and save it in the root folder of the ASP.NET application.3. Alternatively, you can rename error.html in the web.config file to point to an existing error page, but that page must display generic content, not context-specific content.\r\n\r\nOn .NET Framework 3.5 Service Pack 1 and later\r\n1. Create a text file named web.config in the root folder of the ASP.NET application, and insert the following contents:\r\n

<configuration>\r\n<location allowOverride=”false”>\r\n<system.web>\r\n<customErrors mode=”On” redirectMode=”ResponseRewrite” defaultRedirect=”~/ErrorPage.aspx” />\r\n</system.web>\r\n</location>\r\n</configuration>

\r\n2. If you are comfortable using C#, we recommend using the following ErrorPage.aspx\r\n\r\nfile:\r\n

<%@ Page Language=”C#” AutoEventWireup=”true” %>\r\n<%@ Import Namespace=”System.Security.Cryptography” %>\r\n<%@ Import Namespace=”System.Threading” %>\r\n<script runat=”server”>\r\nvoid Page_Load()\r\n{\r\nbyte[] delay = new byte[1];\r\nRandomNumberGenerator prng = new RNGCryptoServiceProvider();\r\nprng.GetBytes(delay);\r\nThread.Sleep((int)delay[0]);\r\nIDisposable disposable = prng as IDisposable;\r\nif (disposable != null)\r\n{\r\ndisposable.Dispose();\r\n}\r\n}</script>\r\n<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd”>\r\n<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml”>\r\n<head runat=”server”>\r\n<title> </title>\r\n</head>\r\n<body>\r\n<div> An error occurred while processing your request.     </div>\r\n</body>\r\n</html>

\r\n3. If you are comfortable using Visual Basic .NET, we recommend using the following ErrorPage.aspx file:\r\n

<%@ Page Language=”VB” AutoEventWireup=”true” %>\r\n<%@ Import Namespace=”System.Security.Cryptography” %>\r\n<%@ Import Namespace=”System.Threading” %>\r\n<script runat=”server”>\r\nSub Page_Load()\r\nDim delay As Byte() = New Byte(0)\r\n{\r\n}\r\nDim prng As RandomNumberGenerator = New RNGCryptoServiceProvider()\r\nprng.GetBytes(delay)\r\nThread.Sleep(CType(delay(0), Integer))\r\nDim disposable As IDisposable = TryCast(prng, IDisposable)\r\nIf\r\nNot disposable Is Nothing\r\nThen\r\ndisposable.Dispose()\r\nEnd IfEnd Sub\r\n</script>\r\n<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd”>\r\n<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml”>\r\n<head runat=”server”>\r\n<title></title>\r\n</head>\r\n<body>\r\n<div>  An error occurred while processing your request.  </div>\r\n</body>\r\n</html>

\r\nIf the ASP.NET application already has a web.config file:\r\n\r\nOn .NET Framework 3.5 RTM and earlier\r\n1. Insert the bracketed text in the sample below into your existing web.config file:\r\n

<?xml version=”1.0″?>\r\n<configuration>\r\n<configSections> …  </configSections>\r\n<appSettings> … </appSettings>\r\n<connectionStrings> … </connectionStrings>\r\n[\r\n<location allowOverride=”false”>\r\n<system.web>\r\n<customErrors mode=”On” defaultRedirect=”~/error.html” />\r\n</system.web>\r\n</location>\r\n]\r\n<system.web> … </system.web>\r\n<system.codedom> … </system.codedom>\r\n</configuration>

\r\n2. Create a text file named error.html containing a generic error message and save it in the root folder of the ASP.NET application.\r\n3. Alternatively, you can rename error.html in the web.config file to point to an existing error page, but that page must display generic content, not context-specific content.\r\n\r\nOn .NET Framework 3.5 Service Pack 1 and later\r\n1. Insert the bracketed text in the sample below into your existing web.config file:\r\n

<?xml version=”1.0″?>\r\n<configuration>\r\n<configSections> … </configSections>\r\n<appSettings> … </appSettings>\r\n<connectionStrings> … </connectionStrings>\r\n[\r\n<location allowOverride=”false”>\r\n<system.web>\r\n<customErrors mode=”On” redirectMode=”ResponseRewrite” defaultRedirect=”~/ErrorPage.aspx” />\r\n</system.web>\r\n</location>]\r\n</configuration>\r\n<system.web> … </system.web>\r\n<system.codedom> … </system.codedom>\r\n</configuration>

\r\n2. If you are comfortable using C#, we recommend using the following ErrorPage.aspx file:\r\n

<%@ Page Language=”C#” AutoEventWireup=”true” %>\r\n<%@ Import Namespace=”System.Security.Cryptography” %>\r\n<%@ Import Namespace=”System.Threading” %>\r\n<script runat=”server”>\r\nvoid Page_Load()\r\n{\r\nbyte[] delay = new byte[1];\r\nRandomNumberGenerator prng = new RNGCryptoServiceProvider();\r\nprng.GetBytes(delay);\r\nThread.Sleep((int)delay[0]);\r\nIDisposable disposable = prng as IDisposable;\r\nif\r\n(disposable != null)\r\n{\r\ndisposable.Dispose();\r\n}\r\n}\r\n</script>\r\n<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd”>\r\n<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml”>\r\n<head runat=”server”>\r\n<title></title>\r\n</head>\r\n<body>\r\n<div> An error occurred while processing your request. </div>\r\n</body>\r\n</html>

\r\n3. If you are comfortable using Visual Basic .NET, we recommend using the following ErrorPage.aspx file:\r\n

<%@ Page Language=”VB” AutoEventWireup=”true” %>\r\n<%@ Import Namespace=”System.Security.Cryptography” %>\r\n<%@ Import Namespace=”System.Threading” %>\r\n<script runat=”server”>\r\nSub Page_Load()\r\nDim delay As Byte() = New Byte(0)\r\n{\r\n}\r\nDim prng As RandomNumberGenerator = New  RNGCryptoServiceProvider()       prng.GetBytes(delay)\r\nThread.Sleep(CType(delay(0), Integer))\r\nDim disposable As IDisposable = TryCast(prng, IDisposable)\r\nIf\r\nNot disposable Is Nothing\r\nThen\r\ndisposable.Dispose()\r\nEnd If\r\nEnd Sub\r\n</script>\r\n<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd”>\r\n<html xmlns=”http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml”>\r\n<head runat=”server”>\r\n<title></title>\r\n</head>\r\n<body>\r\n<div> An error occurred while processing your request. </div>\r\n</body>\r\n</html>

\r\nImpact of Workaround:\r\nIf an error occurs during a Web transaction, the Web clients will see the same generic error message on the server, regardless of what error actually occurs. Additionally, any requests for Web pages which contain the string aspxerrropath= in the querystring portion of the URL will be blocked, and an HTTP error message returned to the client.\r\n\r\nYou can learn more about this vulnerability and the workaround from:\r\n\r\n